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Home > System > Supercritical Fluid System > Overview

Supercritical Fluid System

Supercritical Fluid System - Overview
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Supercritical fluid
Critical point occurs under conditions such as specific values of pressure and temperature at which no phase boundaries exist. Therefore, the supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point.
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Physical character of Supercritical
• It has properties between those of a gas and a liquid.
• Properties can be changed by the pressure and temperature of the fluid.
• It is relatively rapid compared with liquid because of the low viscosities and high diffusivities associated with
   supercritical fluids.
Phase Density (Kg/㎥) Viscosity,(CP) Diffusion x 108(㎡/sec)
Gas 1.0 0.05-0.35 100-10000
SCF 200-900 0.2-1.0 0.1-0.3
Liquid 800-1000 3.0-20 0.05-0.2
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Critical point of fluid state
Solvent Critical Temp.
(℃)
Critical Pressure
(bar)
Density
(g/㎤)
Molecular Weight
(g/mol)
  Carbon dioxide (CO2) 31.1 73.8 0.469 44.01
  Water (H2O) 373.1 220.5 0.348
18.02
Methane (CH4) -87.75 46 0.162 16.04
Ethane (C2H6) 32.4 48.8 0.203 30.07
Propane (C3H8) 96.8 42.5 0.217 44.09
Ethylene (C2H4) 9.4 50.4 0.215 28.05
Propylene(C2H2) 91.75 46 0.232 42.08
Methanol (CH3OH) 239.45 80.9 0.272 32.04
Ethanol (C2H5OH) 240.9 61.4 0.276 46.07
Acetone (C3H6O) 235.1 47.0 0.278 58.08
Carbon dioxide and water are commonly used for supercritical fluids
 
Ideal supercritical fluid
• No corrosion & safety
• Low temperature & pressure for critical point.
• High solubility
• Easy to buy and cheaper price.
• Harmlessness
 
Feature of supercritical fluid
• Eco-friendly clean technology to environment and human
• High technology for high purity and high quality(extraction system)
• Technology of saving energy.
• No waste of solvent(fluid)
 
Character of supercritical fluids
1) Character of Supercritical CO
• Nontoxic and nonflammable, rare properties.
• Eco-friendly fluid (recycle system)
• Low critical point of temperature and pressure(31.0 6degree C, 74 bar)
• High diffusion coefficient(compared with liquid) *Density change by temperature and pressure
Supercritical CO2 system has been the focus of new technology.
Especially, its application are expanding various industry which are food industry, chemical industry, raw-material industry, environmental industry, energy industry; that need environmental conservation and to manufacture product with high quality.
 
2) Character of Supercritical Water
• Chemical properties(density, dielectric constant, conductivity, solvency) can be changed above critical point(374 degree C, 221 bar)
• Non-polar solvent : Dielectric constant of supercritical water has quasivalue with non-polar solvent of benzene, ethyl ether, hexane)
• Supercritical water is excellent solvent to organic matter that is difficult to be dissolved by water.
• It is possible for complete oxidation due to high oxygen and there are no pollutants after process.
• Reaction velocity is rapid by single phase oxidation reaction.
 
Application according to system
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Application
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